How do cells get the energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP?
Photosynthesis is the only process on earth that converts light energy into chemical energy. Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are the raw materials involved in the process and glucose and oxygen are the end products. Photosynthesis occurs in two stages. The first phase is the light-dependent reactions and captures the energy of light and makes high-energy molecules. Sunlight hits the chlorophyll molecule and has to be a certain wavelength (red orange or blue violet). In the second phase, the light-independent reaction uses the high-energy molecules to capture carbon dioxide. In the light reactions one molecule of the pigment chlorophyll absorbs one photon and loses one electron. The chlorophyll molecule regains the lost electron by taking one from a water molecule through a process called photolysis. Oxygen gas is released into the atmosphere as a bi-product. Photosynthesis is affected by the amount of carbon-dioxide and light in the atmosphere.
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